Manufacturing and Economy of Machinery
All Steel Page 11
Temperature Recording And Regulation
Each furnace is equipped with pyrometers, but the reading and recording of all temperatures are in the hands of one man, who occupies a room with an opening into the end of the hardening department. The opening is about 15 ft. above the floor level...
Temperatures To Use
As soon as the temperature of the steel reaches 100 deg.C. (212 deg.F.) the transformation begins, increasing in intensity as the temperature is raised, until finally when the lower critical range is reached, the steel has been all changed into the ...
Tempering Colors On Carbon Steels
Opinions differ as to the temperature which is indicated by the various colors, or oxides, which appear on steel in tempering. The figures shown are from five different sources and while the variations are not great, it is safer to take the averag...
Tempering Round Dies
A number of circular dies of carbon tool steel for use in tool holders of turret lathes were required. No proper tempering oven was available, so the following method was adopted and proved quite successful. After the dies had been hardened dead ...
Strength of a metal is usually expressed in the number of pounds a 1-in. bar will support just before breaking, a term called the ultimate strength. It has been found that the shape of the test bar and its method of loading has some effect upon the ...
Testing And Inspection Of Heat Treatment
The hard parts of the gear must be so hard that a new mill file does not bite in the least. Having passed this file test at several points, the gears go to the center-punch test. The inspector is equipped with a wooden trough secured to the top of ...
The Care Of Carburizing Compounds
Of all the opportunities for practicing economy in the heat-treatment department, there is none that offers greater possibilities for profitable returns than the systematic cleaning, blending and reworking of artificial carburizers, or compounds. ...
The heating at 1,600 deg.F. gives the first heat treatment which refines the core, which under the former high heat (1,700 deg.F.) was rendered coarsely crystalline. All the gears, including the scrap gears, are quenched direct from the pot in this ...
The Effect Of Tempering On Water-quenched Gages
The following information has been supplied by Automatic and Electric Furnaces, Ltd., 6, Queenstreet, London, S. W.: Two gages of 3/4 in. diameter, 12 threads per inch, were heated in a Wild-Barfield furnace, using the pyroscopic detector, and we...
The Electric Process
The fourth method of manufacturing steel is by the electric furnace. These furnaces are of various sizes and designs; their size may be sufficient for only 100 lb. of metal--on the other hand electric furnaces for making armor-plate steel will hold ...
The Forging Of Steel
So much depends upon the forging of steel that this operation must be carefully supervised. This is especially true because of the tendency to place unskilled and ignorant men as furnace-tenders and hammer men. The main points to be supervised are t...
The Influence Of Size
The size of the piece influences the physical properties obtained in steel by heat treatment. This has been worked out by E. J. Janitzky, metallurgical engineer of the Illinois Steel Company, as follows: With an increase in the mass of steel th...
The Leeds And Northrup Potentiometer System
The potentiometer pyrometer system is both flexible and substantial in that it is not affected by the jar and vibration of the factory or the forge shop. Large or small couples, long or short leads can be used without adjustment. The recording instr...
The Modern Hardening Room
A hardening room of today means a very different place from the dirty, dark smithshop in the corner with the open coal forge. There, when we wanted to be somewhat particular, we sometimes shoveled the coal cinders to one side and piled a great pile...
The Packing Department
In Fig. 56 is shown the packing pots where the work is packed. These are of malleable cast iron, with an internal vertical flange around the hole A. This fits in a bell on the end of the cast-iron pipe B, which is luted in position with fireclay be...
Open Hearth Process
Composition Of Transmission-gear Steel
Non-shrinking Oil-hardening Steels
Steel For Chisels And Punches
Quenching The Work
Temperature For Annealing
Heat Treatment Of Punches And Dies Shears Taps Etc
Annealing In Bone
Hardening High-speed Steel
Steel Before The 1850's
Correction By Zero Adjustment
The Penetration Of Carbon