Manufacturing and Economy of Machinery
All Steel Page 12
The Penetration Of Carbon
Carburized mild steel is used to a great extent in the manufacture of automobile and other parts which are likely to be subjected to rough usage. The strength and ability to withstand hard knocks depend to a very considerable degree on the thoroughn...
The Pyrometer And Its Use
In the heat treatment of steel, it has become absolutely necessary that a measuring instrument be used which will give the operator an exact reading of heat in furnace. There are a number of instruments and devices manufactured for this purpose but ...
The Quenching Tank
The quenching tank is an important feature of apparatus in case-hardening--possibly more so than in ordinary tempering. One reason for this is because of the large quantities of pieces usually dumped into the tank at a time. One cannot take time to ...
The Theory Of Tempering
Steel that has been hardened is generally harder and more brittle than is necessary, and in order to bring it to the condition that meets our requirements a treatment called tempering is used. This increases the toughness of the steel, i.e., decrea...
With the application of the thermo-couple, the measurement of temperatures, between, say, 700 and 2,500 deg.F., was made more simple and precise. The theory of the thermo-couple is simple; it is that if two bars, rods, or wires of different metals a...
Tool Or Crucible Steel
Crucible steel can be annealed either in muffled furnace or by being packed. Packing is by far the most satisfactory method as it prevents scaling, local hard spots, uneven annealing, or violent changes in shape. It should be brought up slowly to ju...
Tungsten, as an alloy in steel, has been known and used for a long time. The celebrated and ancient damascus steel being a form of tungsten-alloy steel. Tungsten and its effects, however, did not become generally realized until Robert Mushet experim...
Typical Oil-fired Furnaces
Several types of standard oil-fired furnaces are shown herewith. Figure 92 is a lead pot furnace, Fig. 93 is a vertical furnace with a center column. This column reduces the cubical contents to be heated and also supports the cover. A small too...
Uses Of The Various Tempers Of Carbon Tool Steel
DIE TEMPER.--No. 3: All kinds of dies for deep stamping, pressing and drop forgings. Mining drills to harden only. Easily weldable. SMITHS' TOOL TEMPER.--No. 3-1/2: Large punches, minting and rivet dies, nailmakers' tools, hammers, hot and cold se...
Using Illuminating Gas
The choice of a carburizing furnace depends greatly on the facilities available in the locality where the shop is situated and the nature and quantity of the work to be done. The furnaces can be heated with producer gas in most cases, but when space...
Vanadium has a very marked effect upon alloy steels rich in chromium, carbon, or manganese. Vanadium itself, when combined with steel very low in carbon, is not so noticeably beneficial as in the same carbon steel higher in manganese, but if a small...
William Kelly's Air-boiling Process
An account of Bessemer's address to the British Association was published in the Scientific American on September 13, 1856. On September 16, 1856, Martien filed application for a U.S. patent on his furnace and Mushet for one on the application o...
Open Hearth Process
Composition Of Transmission-gear Steel
Non-shrinking Oil-hardening Steels
Steel For Chisels And Punches
Quenching The Work
Temperature For Annealing
Heat Treatment Of Punches And Dies Shears Taps Etc
Annealing In Bone
Hardening High-speed Steel
Steel Before The 1850's
Correction By Zero Adjustment
The Penetration Of Carbon