Manufacturing and Economy of Machinery
All Steel Page 8
PHOSPHORUS is an element (symbol P) which enters the metal from the ore. It remains in the steel when made by the so-called acid process, but it can be easily eliminated down to 0.06 per cent in the basic process. In fact the discovery of the basic ...
Phosphorus is one of the impurities in steel, and it has been the object of steel makers for years to eliminate it. On cheap grades of steel, not subject to any abnormal strain or stress, 0.1 per cent phosphorus is not objectionable. High phosphorus...
Pickling The Forgings
The forgings were then pickled in a hot solution of either niter cake or sulphuric acid and water at a temperature of 170 deg.F., and using a solution of about 25 per cent. The solution was maintained at a constant point by taking hydrometer reading...
The piston pin on an aviation engine must possess maximum resistance to wear and to fatigue. For this reason, the piston pin is considered, from a metallurgical standpoint, the most important part on the engine to produce in quantities and still pos...
Placing Of Pyrometers
When installing a pyrometer, care should be taken that it reaches directly to the point desired to be measured, that the cold junction is kept cold, and that the wires leading to the recording instrument are kept in good shape. The length of these ...
Placing The Thermo-couples
The following illustrations from the Taylor Instrument Company show different applications of the thermo-couples to furnaces of various kinds. Figure 118 shows an oil-fired furnace with a simple vertical installation. Figure 119 shows a method of im...
Plant For Forging Rifle Barrels
The forging of rifle barrels in large quantities and heat-treating them to meet the specifications demanded by some of the foreign governments led Wheelock, Lovejoy & Company to establish a complete plant for this purpose in connection with their wa...
Preparing Parts For Local Case-hardening
At the works of the Dayton Engineering Laboratories Company, Dayton, Ohio, they have a large quantity of small shafts, Fig. 40, that are to be case-hardened at A while the ends B and C are to be left soft. Formerly, the part A was brush-coated with ...
Preventing Carburizing By Copper-plating
Copper-plating has been found effective and must have a thickness of 0.0005 in. Less than this does not give a continuous coating. The plating bath used has a temperature of 170 deg.F. A voltage of 4.1 is to be maintained across the terminals. Regio...
Preventing Cracks In Hardening
The blacksmith in the small shop, where equipment is usually very limited, often consisting of a forge, a small open hard-coal furnace, a barrel of water and a can of oil must have skill and experience. With this equipment the smith is expected to, ...
Preventing Decarbonization Of Tool Steel
It is especially important to prevent decarbonization in such tools as taps and form cutters, which must keep their shape after hardening and which cannot be ground away on the profile. For this reason it is well to put taps, reamers and the like in...
Process Of Carburizing
Carburizing imparts a shell of high-carbon content to a low-carbon steel. This produces what might be termed a dual steel, allowing for an outer shell which when hardened would withstand wear, and a soft ductile core to produce ductility and withst...
Properties Of Alloy Steels
The following table shows the percentages of carbon, manganese, nickel, chromium and vanadium in typical steel alloys for engineering purposes. It also gives the elastic limit, tensile strength, elongation and reduction of area of the various alloys...
Properties Of Steel
Steels are known by certain tests. Early tests were more or less crude, and depended upon the ability of the workman to judge the grain exhibited by a freshly broken piece of steel. The cold-bend test was also very useful--a small bar was bent flat ...
Protective Screens For Furnaces
Workmen needlessly exposed to the flames, heat and glare from furnaces where high temperatures are maintained suffer in health as well as in bodily discomfort. This shows several types of shields designed for the maximum protection of the furnace wo...
Open Hearth Process
Composition Of Transmission-gear Steel
Non-shrinking Oil-hardening Steels
Steel For Chisels And Punches
Quenching The Work
Temperature For Annealing
Heat Treatment Of Punches And Dies Shears Taps Etc
Annealing In Bone
Hardening High-speed Steel
Steel Before The 1850's
Correction By Zero Adjustment
The Penetration Of Carbon